Thursday, December 29, 2011

New painting by 13-year old art student

Bronwyn Cragg writes:

"I painted this portrait of Raymond Scott for my high school art portfolio! I did a series of similar paintings with people who have influenced me in the different arts: film, music, and literature. I also did portraits of H.P. Lovecraft and Stanley Kubrick. Raymond Scott rules!"

Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Watch The Year's Best
New Performance Video

Witness the amazing MeaNensamble live at Studio Bodø, performing Raymond Scott's 1938 classic, "War Dance For Wooden Indians," recorded October 2011: HERE <<<

We look forward to their live shows and concert DVD during the 75th Anniversary of Raymond Scott's music in 2012.

Thursday, December 22, 2011

Hear & See:
"All Around The Christmas Tree"

Raymond Scott's first hit was "Christmas Night In Harlem," written in 1934 at age 25. His second holiday tune, "All Around The Christmas Tree," released on Columbia Records, accompanied this special illustrated songbook section of the December 1940 issue of Coronet magazine. The label credits the performance to Scott's "New Orchestra," with vocalist Clyde Burke. Listen to this rare song here, and click the images below for full-sized views to read the intro and sing along with the lyrics:

Sunday, November 27, 2011

Lincoln Center and Target® present:
75th Anniversary concert celebration

Raymond Scott's original "Quintette" made its debut in December of 1936 (performing Scott's composition, "The Toy Trumpet"). On December 1st of 2011, the New York-based "Raymond Scott Orchestrette" will perform at the David Rubenstein Atrium at LINCOLN CENTERThis concert, which is part of the Target® Free Thursday Series, will begin the year-long series of events to commemorate the 75th Anniversary of Scott's seminal band — and their classic tunes, like "Powerhouse," that launched his 50-year recording career. More info: here
Irwin adds: This is the first performance by the Orchestrette since 2004, and features the original line-up. The evening will include a cameo by Beth Sorrentino singing "The Toy Trumpet" and accompanying herself on piano. Lyrics to Scott's composition were added for the 1938 movie, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm.

Saturday, November 19, 2011

Listen to new NPR feature:
"Musical DNA of the 20th Century"

The new 1-hour NPR show with me, Jeff Winner, as the in-studio guest — and Raymond Scott's son, Stan Warnow, joins us by phone — hear it online now, or anytime:

>> listen here <<

We talk about the connection to STAR WARS, celebrations for the 75th Anniversary, the new award-winning documentary film — and discover why Raymond Scott loved the bathroom at CBS studios! The radio program, which is simulcast internationally by Sirius XM® satellite, also features rare unreleased recordings of Scott demonstrating his historic electronic music inventions:

''STAN WARNOW, Scott’s son, directed a very personal documentary about his father called 'Deconstructing Dad.' JEFF WINNER, a music historian, archivist, and co-producer of the film, joins us in the studio to discuss this musical DNA of the 20th Century.''

RADIO TIMES is heard live by an audience of millions each weekday 10-noon and rebroadcast 10-midnight. It is also heard live on the Sirius XM channel NPR Now 122 at 10AM. NPR Talk Sirius 123 airs it again from 6-8PM.


• MORE INFO: here

New "Looney Tunes: Platinum Collection"
3-DVD Blu-ray set

Just in time for the cartoon geeks on your holiday shopping list, the new "LOONEY TUNES: PLATINUM COLLECTION" 3-DVD Blu-ray set includes 2 Raymond Scott "Behind the Tunes" featurettes with movie-music maestro, John Williams, and Devo's Mark Mothersbaugh:
"Powerhouse in Pictures"
"Twilight in Tunes: The Music of Raymond Scott"

More info: here

London Jazz Festival

The London Jazz Festival will feature a live set of Raymond Scott's tunes performed by the Stu Brown Sextet on November 20th:

Drummer Stu Brown and his sextet bring the music of the “mad professor of cartoon music” Raymond Scott to life — through the slapstick musical mayhem of all your favourite 1940s Looney Tunes cartoons, The Simpsons and Ren & Stimpy — with crowd-pleasing energy and wit.

Monday, October 17, 2011

Film Wins New Award:
"BEST DOCUMENTARY FEATURE"

The Raymond Scott film won the "Best Documentary Feature" award from the Atlantic City CinefestThe doc, titled DECONSTRUCTING DAD, has garnered rave reviews from LEONARD MALTINTHE ONION, and LA WEEKLY. Previous honors include the Sebastopol Documentary Film Festival "Critic's Choice Award," the Park City Film Music Festival "Director's Choice Gold Medal Award," and it was selected by the Don’t Knock the Rock Film & Music Festival in Los Angeles to be among the "Year’s Five Best Music Docs."

Directed by Raymond Scott's son, STAN WARNOW, and co-produced by JEFF WINNER (me), the documentary features: JOHN WILLIAMS, multi-Academy Award®-winning movie soundtrack composer (JAWS, STAR WARS, HARRY POTTER), MARK MOTHERSBAUGH, Emmy Award®-winning movie & TV score writer, & co-founder of DEVO, DJ SPOOKY, aka PAUL D. MILLER, turntablist, producer, & author, and others. Below is Stan holding the newest award statuette in Atlantic City, last night:

38th annual Gent International Film Festival in Belgium

The new award-winning Raymond Scott documentary film, DECONSTRUCTING DAD, will be screened three times during the 38th annual Gent International Film Festival in Belgium, at the Arts Centre VooruitThursday, October 20th at 2:30pm, Friday night, October 21st at 10:30pm, and Saturday night, October 22nd at 8pm.

VARIETY placed the festival in its 'Top-50 must attend festivals of the world,' and THE WALL STREET JOURNAL called the festival 'one of the five European Film Festivals with character.'

"Established in 1974, the festival has developed into one of Europe's most prominent film events, attracting over 130,000 viewers each year." Sponsors include: ING®, Philips®, Stella Artois®, Peugot®, and Marriot®

Friday, October 07, 2011

BOARDWALK EMPIRE:
Downbeach Film Festival in Atlantic City

DECONSTRUCTING DAD, the new award-winning Raymond Scott documentary film, will be screened Friday night, October 14th at 6pm, as part of the 2011 Downbeach Film Festival & Atlantic City Cinefest. Director Stan Warnow, and co-Producer Jeff WInner (me) will attend, and do Q&A.

UPDATE 1The film won the "Best Documentary Feature" Award. UPDATE 2: We were on the real boardwalk where "EMPIRE" takes place, and I learned this about the location of the movie theater: "Their 'Roaring Twenties' theme capitalizes on the success of the HBO series 'BOARDWALK EMPIRE' and accentuates the resort's Art Deco design, 1920s-era uniforms for employees, and music, drinks, and shows reminiscent of the period." Naturally, this retro environment was an appropriate setting for our film.

Saturday, September 24, 2011

JIM HENSON:
Watch rare experimental film collaborations with Raymond Scott

Muppet master JIM HENSON

More than a decade ago, before I began to work with Gert-Jan Blom on the book and 2-CD set, "MANHATTAN RESEARCH INC.," few details had emerged about Jim Henson's collaborations with Raymond Scott. We now know that in the mid-1960s, Scott began creating a series of experimental films with Henson, who was an emerging artist. He would later have success with Sesame StreetThe Muppet Show, and Hollywood movies, but the Henson/Scott projects were not intended for children. Instead the films are often serious, even creepy, and although they are nearly a half-century old, they have a surprisingly modern feel.

Despite the 28-year difference in age, Raymond clicked with the Muppet master, and here you can watch five examples of their creative output:
Their first project was an ambitious puppetry/film combination titled, "LIMBO: THE ORGANIZED MIND." Henson was intrigued by thought processes and idea sources, and wanted to visualize these concepts. "Limbo" is a character he created using eyes and mouth, made from foam rubber, that seemed to float in front of images that evoke the mind's inner-workings. Henson narrates Limbo's thoughts while Raymond Scott's electronic music and sound effects articulate how and where his thoughts are filed. "THE ORGANIZED MIND" was performed on television at least twice; in July of 1966 on The Mike Douglas Show, and again on The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson in 1974. • Watch "LIMBO: THE ORGANIZED MIND" >> here

The "Organized Mind" concept was later reworked into a TV commercial for Bufferin® brand pain-reliever, titled "Memories," which was also scored by Scott. • Watch "MEMORIES" >> here
In 1966-'67, Jim created two short films for a contest at Montreal's Expo 67. One of these was "Ripples." Shot on 16mm film, it explored the process of creative inspiration, and was accompanied by an electronic score created by Raymond Scott. Shot in January of 1967, it featured an architect, played by future Sesame Street colleague Jon Stone, tossing pebbles into water making ripples. • Watch "RIPPLES" >> here
Also created for Expo 67,"Wheels That Go" is a short film made by Jim Henson in 1967 that explored motion and movement and was again accompanied by an electronic score created by Raymond Scott. It features Henson's son Brian playing with things with wheels. • Watch "WHEELS THAT GO" >> here
In 1967, Henson was contracted by IBM to make a film extolling the virtues of their new technology, the MT/ST, a primitive word processor. The film would explore how the MT/ST would help control the massive amount of documents generated by a typical business office. "Paperwork Explosion," produced in October 1967, is a quick-cut montage of images and words illustrating the intensity and pace of modern business. Once again, Henson collaborated with Raymond Scott on the electronic sound track. • Watch "THE PAPERWORK EXPLOSION" >> here

See also:

• Film soundtracks, and more details about the Jim Henson/Raymond Scott projects are featured in the "MANHATTAN RESEARCH INC." 144-page hardcover, full-color book and 2-CD set  >> info here

• Jim Henson's "RED BOOK" >> here

NOTE: The now iconic color photos, such as the one used in the header of this blog, were taken by Jim Henson during a visit to Raymond Scott's New York studios.

Friday, September 23, 2011

BEST OF THE FEST:
Sebastopol Documentary Film Festival

The Sebastopol Documentary Film Festival returns with 2011's "Best of the Fest" film series, screening six of their favorite films from this year's program. DECONSTRUCTING DAD, the new award-winning Raymond Scott documentary film, is the latest at Sebastopol Center for the Arts. It won the 2011 Critics Award, and it will be on the big screen at 7 p.m. On Friday, October 7th at the center, which is at 6780 Depot St. The cost is $10. Sponsors include: ComcastPBSWhole Foods, and NPR.

"This fest is making a big splash in the town that Tom Waits, Les Claypool, and Peter Krause call home. Sebastopol is a progressive, artist friendly community that supports our documentary festival with incredible turn-outs and engaged audiences. Our festival was chosen by MovieMaker Magazine as one of the '25 Coolest Film Festivals,' an honor we intend to uphold this year."


Saturday, September 10, 2011

New birthday tribute album:
"Tokyorkshire Research Inc" by kidkanevil

Happy 103rd birthday to Raymond Scott, born on September 10th, 1908. Just released today, in honor of this milestone — "Tokyorkshire Research Inc," a new Raymond Scott by tribute album by Kidkanevil, who writes:

"Thank you - Stan Warnow, Irwin Chusid, Jeff WinnerSource material used with kind permission of the Raymond Scott estate. Mastered by Matt Colton at AIR STUDIOS, London. NOTE - This beat tape is intended to be listened to on shuffle/make your own track listing." • UPDATE — Watch the new video: here

Red Bull Music Academy Daily News adds: "Samurai-style London Academy grad Kidkanevil just released a tribute beat-tape comprised in it's entirety from the music of Raymond Scott. An audacious feat no less, but the results are incredible: the thing goes hard. And in case you're worried, the tape is 100% cleared by the Scott estate so you can rest easily knowing no bad karmic repercussions are in store. Btw, we're on our third listen right now, and it keeps getting better."

Friday, September 09, 2011

ALL TOMORROW'S PARTIES presents:
"I'll Be Your Mirror" curated by PORTISHEAD

DECONSTRUCTING DAD, the new award-winning Raymond Scott documentary film, will be screened as part of All Tomorrow's Parties' music and film festival, "I'll Be Your Mirror," curated by PORTISHEAD. Date: October 2nd, at 11:30 am. Venue: the The Berkeley Oceanfront. Cinema sponsored by the Criterion Collection. Director Stan Warnow will attend, and musical acts include:

PUBLIC ENEMY performing FEAR OF A BLACK PLANET
Jeff Mangum of NEUTRAL MILK HOTEL
J.G. Thirlwell's MANOREXIA
Marc Ribot's CERAMIC DOG
DJ PEANUT BUTTER WOLF
ULTRAMAGNETIC MCs
DJ SHEPARD FAIREY
PORTISHEAD
DEERHOOF
SHELLAC
MOGWAI
CHAVEZ
SWANS
"The Perfect Rock Festival."
—ROLLING STONE

"Incredible."
—THE VILLAGE VOICE

"A completely unique concert going experience."
—NPR

"Essentially a perfect weekend."
—ENTERTAINMENT WEEKLY
ht: Krista Napp

Friday, September 02, 2011

Demotivational Poster

“A motivational poster is commonly designed for use in schools and offices. This kind of poster has been repeatedly parodied, and parody motivational posters have become an Internet meme.”

The mischief-makers responsible for "I Can Has Cheezburger?," "FAIL Blog," and other popular comedy sites, have published this on their VeryDemotivational.com:
Selected comments:

"It’s Raymond Scott, Not Hausmann"

"OMG! He’s tormenting Dorothy Collins!"

"They were married. Doesn’t that go with the territory?"

"I believe this Raymond Scott and he produced many of the beats off of loneytunes. Also if this is the track I Think he is doing it is light works, search it. Its a hell of a track."

SEE ALSO: "Urban Dictionary"

Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Yes And Also Yes

''I had a big thing for Raymond Scott loops. Hell, I could probably eke out a living producing hiphop records, using nothing but breakbeats and Raymond Scott compositions.''
—MIKE DOUGHTY

Today Mike Doughty dropped his new album, YES AND ALSO YES. There's no connection to Raymond Scott on this record, but we wanna plug it anyway. Irwin and I are big fans of Doughty's music and his 1990s band Soul Coughing — and not just because they released three tracks with Raymond Scott samples.

"Bus To Beelzebub," from their first album RUBY VROOM, was based on adapted loops from Scott's "Powerhouse," as heard in numerous Bugs Bunny cartoons. "Uh, Zoom Zip," from the same album, uses samples from the RS Quintette's recording of "The Toy Trumpet" that are so distorted they went unidentified for years. By contrast, the loops from the RSQ's "The Penguin" heard throughout SC's "Disseminated," on their 2nd album, IRRESISTIBLE BLISS, are easy to spot. I love the track and think it's one of the coolest uses of Scott samples by any artist, but Doughty is ambivalent. "The lyrics are not my proudest," he explained for SCUG.net. "Don’t get me wrong, I’m pro-nonsense, but at the time we were sequencing the record I dismissed the song as 'harmelodic vaudeville.' Democracy won out, the song made the record, and it ended up being the only damn song on the record that Robert Christgau liked when he reviewed it in Spin."

Doughty has been busy — he also released an album of loop-based electronic music this month called DUBIOUS LUXURY. He explains, "I wasn’t noisy about it, at the time, but much of the sampled stuff in Soul Coughing was my work: the crazed Bugs Bunny sample on 'Bus to Beelzebub,' the peculiar Raymond Scott sample on 'Disseminated'." But don't expect more Raymond Scott samples. "After the first record, my bandmates were increasingly unreceptive to loops I brought in from other people's music. Maybe they were right, we woulda been poorer, giving our money away to other composers," he said at MikeDoughty.com. "I could only use the majority of the loops live — gone are the days when Warner Bros. would write a fat check to pay off the Raymond Scott estate and Toots Hibbert for their unsuspecting contributions! Even rappers are too smart to use samples these days."

ADDED BY I.C.: Doughty just confirmed he'll perform live on my WFMU program on Weds. September 21, between 5-6pm (Eastern). MD also performed a couple of songs on WFMU's snarky SEVEN SECOND DELAY, hosted by Ken Freedman and Andy Breckman, broadcast from the UPRIGHT CITIZENS BRIGADE on July 27.

Saturday, August 27, 2011

Mark Mothersbaugh and The Electronium

Mark Mothersbaugh (Devo) with the Motown version of Raymond Scott’s instantaneous-composition invention, THE ELECTRONIUM (and a Yamaha DX-7), in Scott’s guesthouse in Van Nuys, CA, 1993. [Photo by Mr. Bonzai, published in BILLBOARD magazine]
“Raymond Scott was like an audio version of Andy Warhol. He preceded Pop-Art sensibilities, and he played with that line between commercial art and fine art, mixing elements of both worlds together. I love and respect Raymond Scott's work, and it influenced me a lot. I'm a big fan.” —Mark Mothersbaugh
UPDATE — Synthtopia.com reblogged, and adds: 
Saturday Synth Porn:
There are multiple layers of music history captured in the photo. Scott’s work was an inspiration to Bob Moog, who created the Minimoog that was used extensively on Devo’s early albums. The Electronium is now owned by Mothersbaugh, but is not in working order.
Image: Mr. Bonzai, via Jeff Winner’s Raymond Scott blog

Friday, August 26, 2011

Mazel Tov!

As the month expires, we confess that we neglected to observe that September 2011 marks the 90th anniversary of Harry Warnow's (not-yet-Raymond Scott's) Bar Mitzvah. We apologize for the oversight. There is no existing documentation for the exact date, nor the location of the services or reception, but it would have been scheduled for September 1921. His parents, Joseph and Sarah, would have been very proud of Harry if—despite his vocal shortcomings and stagefright—he had the courage to sing his haftorah.

Thursday, August 25, 2011

8th Annual Jackpot Records Music & Film Festival at The Bagdad Theater in Portland

The new award-winning Raymond Scott documentary film, DECONSTRUCTING DAD, will be screened as part of the 8th Annual Jackpot Records Music & Film Festival at the historic Bagdad Theater in Portland, Oregon, on September 27th at 8pm. Director Stan Warnow will attend:
We spend months wandering the celluloid highway looking for masterpieces. We've landed some genuine Portland premiers, had extremely colorful director appearances, and evaporated the minds of young and old alike with features that genuflect before no genre. We hope that you get as excited about this year's week of wonders as we are.
The Bagdad Theater: "This marvelous relic of Hollywood's Golden Age is a movie palace full of wonder and surprises. For nearly four generations now, the Bagdad's Mediterranean/neon persona and daily films have made it an icon of Portland's vibrant Hawthorne District. The interior is an attraction in and of itself, with barreled arches, ornate wrought-iron fixtures, brilliant mosaics and painted Mediterranean designs and characters."
“Music and film often have a symbiotic relationship, as legions of great music documentaries attest. This stuff is priceless, and not only that, it’s free. Get to these screenings early if you want a seat.” THE PORTLAND TRIBUNE 

Friday, August 19, 2011

Powerhouse Road

During a research mission in April of 2001 to locate Raymond Scott’s Manhasset mansion, Piet Schreuders and I found only this evidence of its previous existence — the access road to the house that Scott named in honor of his classic tune. The mansion can be seen in its full glory here:
Caption on this photo reads: "On the sloping backyard lawn of their Manhasset, Long Island, home, singer Dorothy Collins and her husband, composer-conductor Raymond Scott, hoist daughter Debbie, 2½, aloft for a giddy dash downhill. Their 30-room home is in the background. Credit (United Press Photo) 5/3/57"

Saturday, August 13, 2011

"A-Muzik Film Series" at Museum Ludwig in Cologne, Germany

DECONSTRUCTING DAD, the new award-winning Raymond Scott documentary film, will be screened on August 25th at 9pm, at the Museum Ludwig in Cologne, Germany, as part of the A-Muzik Film SeriesDirector Stan Warnow will attend.

Museum Ludwig houses PopArt, Abstract and Surrealism, and has one of the largest Picasso collections in Europe. It also features many works by Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein.

Monday, August 08, 2011

MK Gallery's "Friday Night Films" in Milton Keynes, England

On Friday, August 5th, at 6:30 pm, the new award-winning Raymond Scott documentary film, DECONSTRUCTING DAD, will be screened at MK Gallery in Milton Keynes, England, as part of their "Friday Night Films" series. £5 (concessions £3) • Pre-book on 01908 676 900

"Our Mission Statement: MK Gallery provides free access to high quality, innovative and thought-provoking contemporary art from around the world. In its programme MK Gallery stimulates participation and debate, building relationships between artists and audiences."

Monday, August 01, 2011

"Movies on a Big Screen" at The Guild Theater in Sacramento, California

The new award-winning Raymond Scott documentary film, DECONSTRUCTING DAD, will be screened at the historic Guild Theater in Sacramento, California, on August 7th, at 7:30pm as part of the "Movies on a Big Screen" series. Admission: $5.00 • 2828 35th St, Sacramento, CA

The Guild is the only remaining of the early-20th century theaters Oak Park was known for. Completed in 1915, the building's structure reflects the influence of the Moorish Revival. For decades, it was a premiere entertainment destination, and in its earliest days played host to vaudeville shows. St. HOPE Academy has restored The Guild Theater and showcases film, lectures, and live performances.

"'Movies on a Big Screen' fits perfectly within our distribution goals, in that they put to screen films that may not secure week-long runs in a commercial theater, but can highlight independent films and bring them to Sacramento — remember, the capital of California — and add to the great creative spirit that lives in that community."
—Arts Engine/Media That Matters

Thursday, June 30, 2011

75th Anniversary of Raymond Scott's Music: 1937—2012

2012 marks the 75th Anniversary of Raymond Scott's music, which is forever associated with Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck — though bandleader-composer Scott had no interest in cartoons. Ever!

Composer, electronic music pioneer, inventor, and bandstand drill sergeant Raymond Scott was born Harry Warnow, in Brooklyn, in 1908. After graduating from Juilliard, he wrote the 1934 hit song “Christmas Night In Harlem,” recorded by Louis Armstrong. In December 1936, Scott debuted his six-man “Quintette,” which featured jazz giant Bunny Berigan on trumpet and drummer Johnny Williams, father of famous movie score composer John Williams. By early 1937, Scott's Quintette were stars on radio, on records, and — after landing a contract with 20th Century Fox — in Hollywood films. The RSQ reeled off a string of quirky hit records, including “Powerhouse” (recorded February 20, 1937 in New York at their first studio session). Thanks to its being quoted by Carl Stalling in dozens of LOONEY TUNES, the "Powerhouse" melodies have become genetically encoded in the DNA of every earthling.

The Raymond Scott Archives celebrates the 75th with a series of live events and special projects (listed below). If you plan to coordinate an event, record Scott's tunes, or write about Scott, contact: info@RaymondScott.com. We can provide sheet music, photos, and historical resources. We are available for interviews and to host local programs.
 On December 1st, 2011, the New York-based Raymond Scott Orchestrette reunited to perform at Lincoln Center, as part of the Target® Free Thursday series — watch the new video slideshow with music: here

 Basta Audio-Visuals, the European label is planning several releases, including two vinyl LP replicas (which are available now — details here): Scott's 1957 orchestral THIS TIME WITH STRINGS, and a rare stereo mix of 1959’s THE UNEXPECTED, performed by Scott’s all-star jazz ensemble The Secret Seven. And a new 2-track single has also been released on the iTunes store — info: here.

 The award-winning Raymond Scott documentary, DECONSTRUCTING DAD will be screened at movie theaters and international film festivals: ScottDoc.com

Live performances of Scott's animated compositions (jazz, pop, and electronica) will take place around the globe, including:

 UK: Stu Brown Sextet and Mr. McFall's Chamber present ongoing concerts of Scott repertoire

 USA: The West Point Band’s Quintette 7 perform RSQ repertoire

 Norway: The MeaNensemble presents “White (Brain) Wash in concert: A Tribute To Raymond Scott & the Perfect World of Commercials”

 New York: Brian Carpenter’s Ghost Train Orchestra performs “Powerhouse Stomp: A Tribute To Classic Cartoons” 

 Spain: Racalmuto recreate the RSQ's six-man lineup and repertoire

 San Francisco: Jeff Stanford’s Cartoon Jazz Orchestra and Septet perform Scott classics accompanying cartoons

 Colorado: The Expedition Quartet present “An Acoustic Dinner with a Pack of Hungry Cannibals”

 Los Angeles: A multimedia show at the Redcat theater in the Walt Disney Concert Hall, curated by composer Ego Plum, and movie score orchestrator/composer Steve Bartek of Oingo Boingo on Friday, November 9th, 2012
________________________________________________
CONTACT:
Jeff E. Winner The Raymond Scott Archives
Phone: 267-970-4396
View or Download Press Release: here
________________________________________________


P.S. Check-out this new collection of 75 YouTube clips of the Raymond Scott classic, "Powerhouse," celebrating the 75th anniversary of the RS Quintette's debut studio recording, on February 20, 1937, in New York: HERE <<<

Portrait of RSQ © by Drew Friedman